Archive for Dezembro, 2012

Toby Hemenway, in Our Finite World

Jared Diamond calls it “the worst mistake in the history of the human race.”(1) Bill Mollison says that it can “destroy whole landscapes.”(2) Are they describing nuclear energy? Suburbia? Coal mining? No. They are talking about agriculture. The problem is not simply that farming in its current industrial manifestation is destroying topsoil and biodiversity. Agriculture in any form is inherently unsustainable. At its doorstep can also be laid the basis of our culture’s split between humans and nature, much disease and poor health, and the origins of dominator hierarchies and the police state. Those are big claims, so let’s explore them.

Permaculture, although it encompasses many disciplines, orbits most fundamentally around food. Anthropologists, too, agree that food defines culture more than our two other physical needs of shelter and reproduction. A single home-building stint provides a place to live for decades. A brief sexual encounter can result in children. But food must be gotten every day, usually several times a day. Until very recently, all human beings spent much of their time obtaining food, and the different ways of doing that drove cultures down very divergent paths.

Anthropologist Yehudi Cohen (3) and many subsequent scholars break human cultures into five categories based on how they get food. These five are foragers (or hunter-gatherers), horticulturists, agriculturists, pastoralists, and industrial cultures. Knowing which category a people falls into allows you to predict many attributes of that group. For example, foragers tend to be animist/pantheist, living in a world rich with spirit and in which all beings and many objects are ascribed a status equal to their own in value and meaning. Foragers live in small bands and tribes. Some foragers may be better than others at certain skills, like tool making or medicine, but almost none have exclusive specialties and everyone helps gather food. Though there may be chiefs and shamans, hierarchies are nearly flat and all members have access to the leaders. A skirmish causing two or three deaths is a major war. Most of a forager’s calories come from meat or fish, supplemented with fruit, nuts, and some wild grain and tubers.(4) It’s rare that a forager will overexploit his environment, as the linkage is so tight that destruction of a resource one season means starvation the next. Populations tend to peak at low numbers and stabilize.

The First Growth Economy

Agriculturists, in contrast, worship gods whose message usually is that humans are chosen beings holding dominion, or at least stewardship, over creation. This human/nature divide makes ecological degradation not only inevitable but a sign of progress.


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Piolhoso país em que nasci,

coio de inchados zeros vencedores,

de medíocres maus, de furta-cores,

de lázaros, de cães sem pedigree!


Sarcástica, de gozo, a gente ri.

São os péssimos tidos por melhores.

Pisam, brutais, angústia, pena, dores:

ah, se os compreendo! Ah! se os compreendi!


São arrobas de sebo e cornadura,

fornecedores de fábricas de pentes

e de soro, também, contra as bexigas.


São deputados, directores-gerais,

governadores, ministros, generais,

sem que passem de túmidas lombrigas.


Tomaz de Figueiredo, Poesia II, (In Telhados de Vidro,  17)

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para o primeiro e quase único blogue português empenhado em abrir brechas na muralha de ignorância sobre o pico petrolífero e sobre a falácia do crescimento exponencial. Refiro-me a Pico do Petróleo, e recomendo-o vivamente a quem não tenha pachorra para ler em inglês, já que Carlos Janeiro (muito ao contrário de mim) se dá à benemerência de explicar a coisa por palavras próprias e na língua de Camões.

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